The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) is a mountain variety in South Wales. In a narrow perception, the name refers to the variety of Outdated Crimson Sandstone peaks well-known with walkers which lie to the south of Brecon. From time to time referred to as “the central Beacons” they involve South Wales’ maximum mountain, Pen y Enthusiast. The variety sorts the central portion of the Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog), a designation which also encompasses ranges both to the east and the west of “the central Beacons”. This much broader location is also commonly referred to as “the Brecon Beacons”.
The Brecon Beacons
The Brecon Beacons variety, in its narrower perception contains 6 key peaks: from west to east these are: Corn Du (873 m or 2864 toes), Pen y Enthusiast, the maximum peak (886 m or 2907 toes), Cribyn (795 m or 2608 toes), Enthusiast y Big (719 m or 2359 toes), Bwlch y Ddwyallt (754 m or 2474 ft) and Waun Rydd (769 m or 2523 ft). These summits form a very long ridge, and the sections joining the 1st 4 form a horseshoe condition about the head of the Taf Fechan river, which flows away to the southeast. To the northeast of the ridge, interspersed with very long parallel spurs, are 4 round-headed valleys or cwms from west to east these are Cwm Sere, Cwm Cynwyn, Cwn Oergwm and Cwm Cwareli.
The Brecon Beacons are claimed to be named following the historical apply of lighting sign fires (beacons) on mountains to warn of assaults by invaders, or a lot more lately to commemorate public and national occasions these kinds of as coronations or the flip of the millennium.
The round of the Taf Fechan skyline sorts a well-known ridge walk commonly regarded as the Beacons Horseshoe. Lots of other high-quality walks exist in this section of the Nationwide Park.
The Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park
The Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park was set up in 1957, the third of the a few Welsh parks following Snowdonia in 1951 and the Pembrokeshire Coast in 1952. It stretches from Llandeilo in the west to Hay-on-Wye in the northeast and Pontypool in the southeast, masking 519 sq. miles (1344 km², 332 a hundred acres) and encompassing 4 key regions – the Black Mountain in the west, Fforest Fawr (Wonderful Forest) and the Brecon Beacons in the centre, and the confusingly named Black Mountains in the east. The western half gained European and International status in 2005[one] as Fforest Fawr Geopark. This contains the Black Mountain, the historic extent of Fforest Fawr, and much of the Brecon Beacons and surrounding lowlands.
The whole Nationwide Park attained the status of becoming an Intercontinental Dim Sky Reserve in February 2013.
Most of the Nationwide Park is bare, grassy moorland grazed by Welsh mountain ponies and Welsh mountain sheep, with scattered forestry plantations, and pasture in the valleys. It is regarded for its remote reservoirs, waterfalls including the 90 foot (or 27 metre) Henrhyd Waterfall and the falls at Ystradfellte, and its caves, these kinds of as Ogof Ffynnon Ddu. The Brecon Beacons Mountain Centre was opened in 1966 to aid website visitors understand and delight in the location.
Routines in the Park involve strolling, biking, mountain biking, horse using, as properly as sailing, windsurfing, canoeing and fishing, rock climbing, hold-gliding, caravanning, tenting and caving. A very long-length biking route, the Taff Path, passes around the Beacons on its way from Brecon to Cardiff, and in 2005 the 1st walk to span the whole size of the Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park was opened. The a hundred-mile (a hundred and sixty km) route, referred to as the Beacons Way, runs from the foot of Ysgyryd Fawr east of Abergavenny and finishes in the village of Bethlehem in Carmarthenshire.
Due to the relative remoteness and severe temperature of some of its uplands, the Park is used for navy instruction. Uk Unique Forces, including the SAS and SBS keep demanding variety instruction exercises right here, these kinds of as an training referred to as the Enthusiast dance. The infantry regiments of the British Army practice at Sennybridge, where NCO variety also takes place.
In 2006 and 2007, controversy surrounded the authorities final decision to make the South Wales Fuel Pipeline via the Park, the Nationwide Park Authority contacting the final decision a “huge blow”.
Mountain rescue in south Wales is supplied by 5 volunteer teams, with the law enforcement having total command. In really serious predicaments they are aided by RAF helicopters from RAF Chivenor or RAF Valley. The 5 teams are:
BMRT – Brecon Mountain Rescue Team 
CBMRT – Central Beacons Mountain Rescue Team 
LMRT – Longtown Mountain Rescue Team dependent in the east 
WBMSART – Western Beacons Mountain Research and Rescue Team 
SARDA South Wales – Research and Rescue Puppy Association masking South and & Mid Wales 
The teams are funded primarily by donations. Their operate is not restricted to mountain rescue – they usually guide the law enforcement in their lookup for missing or vulnerable people today in the group.
The location was inhabited through the Neolithic times and the succeeding Bronze Age, the most clear legacy of the latter becoming the numerous burial cairns which adorn the hills of the west of the Nationwide Park.
Above 20 hill-forts ended up set up in the location through the Iron Age. The major, and in truth the major in south Wales, ended up the pair of forts atop Y Garn Goch in close proximity to Bethlehem – Y Gaer Fawr and Y Gaer Fach – literally ‘the large fort’ and ‘the tiny fort’. The forts are thought to have after been investing and political centres.
When the Romans arrived to Wales in 43 Advertisement, they stationed a lot more than 600 soldiers in the location. Y Gaer, in close proximity to the city of Brecon was their key base. In the course of the Norman Conquest a lot of castles ended up erected all through the park. One of the most popular is Carreg Cennen Castle but there are a lot of a lot more. Brecon Castle is of Norman origin.
The location performed a substantial purpose through the Industrial Revolution as various uncooked components including limestone, silica sand and ironstone ended up quarried for transport southwards to the furnaces of the industrialising South Wales Valleys.
The Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park Authority is a particular purpose community authority which exercises planning functions throughout the designated location of the park. The park extends throughout the southern section of Powys, the northwestern section of Monmouthshire and parts of eastern Carmarthenshire. It also contains the northernmost parts of many of the unitary authority areas which are centred on the coalfield communities to the south and including the county boroughs of Neath Port Talbot, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Merthyr Tydfil and Blaenau Gwent jointly with really smaller parts of Caerphilly and Torfaen.
A lot of city and group councils work in these areas and involve people for Brecon and Hay on Wye (city councils) and Cefn Coed Llanfihangel Cwmdu with Bwlch & Cathedine Llangattock Llangors Llanthony Llywel Pontsticill, Pontsarn & Vaynor Talybont-on-Usk Trallong Trecastle and Ystradfellte (all group councils).
The Brecon Beacons Nationwide Park appeals to a lot of website visitors because of to the variety and top quality of outside functions the park delivers. These involve hill strolling, climbing, gorge-strolling, caving, horse-using and mountain biking.